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Saturday, April 27

Ingredient Substitutions

Ingredient Substitutions

by P. Kendall * (1/13)

Quick Facts...

  • It is sometimes more convenient to substitute an ingredient than it is to go out and purchase the necessary ingredient.
  • When substituting ingredients, take into account the differences in taste, moisture content, texture and weight.
  • When substituting for sugar and flour, consider the differences in sweetening and thickening power.
  • Understand the physical and chemical properties of all ingredients.
  • Measuring accurately will help avoid disappointment.
How many times have you been ready to cook and found you were out of a certain ingredient? Sometimes it is inconvenient to run out and purchase the necessary ingredient – it’s easier to use a similar product as a replacement.
There are, however, several factors to consider when substituting ingredients. Take into account differences in flavor, moisture, texture and weight.
Substitutions with an acid factor, such as molasses, need to be neutralized to avoid changes in the flavor and texture of the product. Differences in sweetening and thickening power need consideration in sugar and flour substitutions. To help avoid disappointments when substituting ingredients, understand the physical and chemical properties of all ingredients. Measure accurately.
Table 1 gives substitutes that may be used to get a finished product similar to the original. The following abbreviations are used:
          tsp = teaspoon
          Tbsp = tablespoon
          oz = ounce
          lb = pound
Table 1: Ingredient equivalents.
Allspice1 tsp1/2 tsp cinnamon plus 1/2 tsp ground cloves.
Apple pie spice1 tsp1/2 tsp cinnamon, 1/4 tsp nutmeg, and 1/8 tsp cardamom.
Arrowroot, as thickener1 Tbsp2 Tbsp all-purpose flour.
1 Tbsp cornstarch
Baking powder,
 double acting
1 tsp1/4 tsp baking soda, 1/2 tsp cream of tartar and 1/4 tsp cornstarch;
1/4 tsp baking soda plus 5/8 tsp cream of tartar;
1/4 tsp baking soda plus 1/2 cup buttermilk, sour milk or yogurt; (decrease liquid in recipe by 1/2 cup);
1/4 tsp baking soda, 1/2 Tbsp vinegar or lemon juice plus sweet milk to make 1/2 cup (decrease liquid in recipe by 1/2 cup);
1/4 tsp baking soda plus 1/4 cup molasses (decrease liquid in recipe by 1-2 Tbsp);
1 1/2 tsp phosphate or tartrate baking powder.
Bay leaf, crushed1 tsp1 whole bay leaf.
Brandy1/4 cup1 tsp brandy extract plus enough water or liquid called for in recipe to make 1/4 cup.
Bread crumbs
1/4-1/3 cup1 slice bread;
1/4 cup cracker crumbs;
2/3 cup rolled oats;
 soft1/2-3/4 cup1 slice bread.
Broth, beef or chicken1 cup1 bouillon cube, 1 tsp (1 envelope) powdered broth base or 1 tsp instant granules dissolved in 1 cup water.
Butter1 cup1 cup margarine;
7/8 to 1 cup hydrogenated shortening plus 1/2 tsp salt;
7/8 cup lard plus 1/2 tsp salt;
7/8 cup oil plus 1/2 tsp salt.
Catsup1 cup1 cup tomato sauce plus 1/2 cup sugar and 2 Tbsp vinegar (for use in cooking).
Chili Sauce1 cup1 cup tomato sauce, 1/4 cup brown sugar, 2 Tbsp vinegar, 1/4 tsp cinnamon, and dash of ground cloves and allspice.
Chives, finely chopped1 Tbsp1 Tbsp green onion tops, finely chopped.
Chocolate, unsweetened1 oz3 Tbsp cocoa plus 1 Tbsp butter or fat;
3 Tbsp carob powder plus 2 Tbsp water.
     semisweet1-2/3 oz1 oz unsweetened chocolate plus 4 tsp sugar.
Chocolate chips, semisweet, melted6 oz pkg
(2/3 cup)
2 squares (2 oz) unsweetened chocolate, 2 Tbsp shortening and 1/2 cup sugar melted (2/3 cup).
Coconut, grated, dry1 Tbsp1 1/2 tbsp fresh coconut, grated.
Coconut milk1 cup1 cup milk.
Coconut cream1 cup1 cup cream.
Cornstarch1 Tbsp2 Tbsp all-purpose flour;
2 Tbsp granular tapioca;
1 Tbsp arrowroot.
Corn syrup1 cup1 cup granulated sugar plus 1/4 cup water or other liquid called for in recipe;
1 cup honey.
Cracker crumbs3/4 cup1 cup dry bread crumbs.
     half & half (10-12% fat)
1 cup1 1/2 Tbsp butter plus 7/8 cup milk;
1/2 cup coffee cream plus 1/2 cup milk;
1 cup evaporated milk, undiluted.
     coffee (20% fat)1 cup3 Tbsp butter plus 7/8 cup milk.
     heavy (36-40% fat)1 cup1/3 cup butter plus 3/4 cup milk (for baking only, will not whip).
     sour cream1 cup7/8 cup buttermilk or sour milk;
1 cup yogurt;
1 1/8 cup powdered nonfat dry milk, 1/2 cup warm water and 1 Tbsp vinegar (mixture will thicken in refrigerator in a few hours);
1 cup evaporated milk plus 1 Tbsp vinegar (allow to stand 5 minutes before using);
1/3 cup buttermilk, 1 Tbsp lemon juice, and 1 cup smooth cottage cheese blended together;
7/8 cup milk, 1 Tbsp lemon juice, and 2 Tbsp butter or margarine.
     whipped cream2 cups1 cup chilled evaporated milk plus 1/2 tsp lemon juice, whipped until stiff.
Cream of tartar1/2 tsp1 1/2 tsp lemon juice or vinegar.
Dill, fresh1 head1 tsp dill seed.
Eggs whole, large1 egg
(3 1/3 Tbsp)
2 1/2 Tbsp dried, sifted eggs plus 2 1/2 Tbsp water;
3 1/3 Tbsp frozen egg yolks, thawed;
1/2 tsp baking powder, 1 Tbsp vinegar and 1 Tbsp liquid (in baking);
1 egg in every 3 can be replaced with 1 Tbsp cornstarch in baking;
Soften 1 Tbsp unflavored gelatin in 3 Tbsp cold water, add 3 tsp boiling water, cool and beat until frothy, add to recipe (reduce other liquid by 2 Tbsp);
1/4 cup commercial egg substitute.
     whites1 egg white
(2 Tbsp)
2 tsp dried egg white plus 2 Tbsp water;
2 Tbsp frozen egg whites, thawed.
     yolks1 egg yolk
(1 1/3 Tbsp)
2 Tbsp dried egg yolks plus 2 tsp water;
4 tsp frozen egg yolks, thawed.
Flour, pastry1 cup7/8 cup all-purpose or bread flour.
     cake1 cup7/8 cup all-purpose flour (1 cup less 2 Tbsp).
     white, all-purpose for thickening1 Tbsp1/2 Tbsp cornstarch, potato starch, rice starch or arrowroot;
1 Tbsp quick-cooking tapioca;
1 Tbsp waxy rice or corn flour;
2 Tbsp granular cereal;
2 Tbsp browned flour;
1 1/2 Tbsp whole wheat flour.
     white, all-purpose for baking
     Note: Specialty flours added to yeast bread recipes will result in a reduced volume and heavier product.
1 cup1 1/2 cups bread crumbs;
1 1/8 cups cake flour (1 cup plus 2 Tbsp);
7/8 to 1 cup corn meal;
1/2 cup cornstarch plus 1/2 cup rye, potato or rice flour (sift together 6 times, use with 2 tsp baking powder per cup in quick breads as wheat flour allergy substitute);
13/16 cup gluten flour (1 cup less 3 Tbsp);
5/8 cup potato flour;
7/8 cup rice flour;
1 1/3 cups rolled oats;
1 1/4 cups rye flour;
1/8 cup soy, cottonseed, peanut or carob flour plus 7/8 cup all-purpose flour;
1/3 cup wheat germ plus 2/3 cup all-purpose flour
1 cup minus 1 Tbsp whole wheat flour.
     white, all-purpose, self-rising1 cup1 cup all-purpose flour plus 1 1/4 tsp baking powder and 1/4 tsp salt.
Garlic1 clove, small1/8 tsp garlic powder or instant minced garlic;
1/2-1 tsp garlic salt (reduce amount salt called for in recipe).
Gelatin, flavored3-oz package1 Tbsp plain gelatin plus 2 cups fruit juice.
Ginger, candied or raw1 Tbsp1/8 tsp powdered ginger.
Herbs, fresh1 Tbsp1 tsp dried herbs.
Honey1 cup1 1/4 cup sugar plus 1/4 cup liquid (use liquid called for in recipe).
Horseradish, grated fresh1 Tbsp2 Tbsp bottled horseradish.
Italian seasoning1 tsp1/4 tsp basil, 2/3 tsp dried parsley, and pinch oregano.
Lemon, whole1 lemon1 to 3 Tbsp juice, plus 2 to 2 1/2 tsp grated rind.
     juice1 tsp1/2 tsp vinegar.
     grated rind or peel1 tsp1/2 tsp lemon extract.
Lemon grass1 Tbsp1 Tbsp lemon peel.
Maple sugar, grated1 Tbsp
1/2 cup
1 Tbsp white sugar;
1 cup maple syrup (decrease liquid by 1/2 cup).
Maple syrupabout 2 cupsCombine 2 cups sugar and 1 cup water, bring to clear boil; take off heat; add 1/2 tsp maple flavoring.
Marshmallows, miniature1 cup10 large marshmallows.
Mayonnaise (for use in
salads and salad dressings)
1 cup1 cup yogurt, sour cream or cottage cheese pureed in blender (use for all or part of mayonnaise called for in recipe).
Milk, buttermilk or sour1 cup1 cup minus 1 Tbsp sweet milk, plus 1 Tbsp vinegar or lemon juice; let stand 5 minutes;
1 cup sweet milk plus 1 1/4-1 3/4 tsp cream of tartar;
1 cup yogurt (plain).
     skim1 cup1/3 cup instant nonfat dry milk plus 7/8 cup water.
     whole1 cup1/2 cup evaporated milk plus 1/2 cup water;
1 cup skim, 2% or reconstituted dry milk;
1 cup soy or almond milk;
1 cup fruit juice or potato water in baking;
1 cup water plus 1 1/2 tsp butter in baking;
1 cup buttermilk plus 1/2 tsp baking soda (decrease baking powder by 2 tsp).
     sweetened condensed1 cupCombine 1 cup plus 2 Tbsp dry milk with 1/2 cup warm water and 3/4 cup sugar, mix well, may set pan in bowl of hot water to dissolve sugar.
Mint leaves, fresh chopped1/4 cup1 Tbsp dried mint leaves.
Molasses1 cup3/4 cup sugar, increase liquid by 5 Tbsp, decrease baking soda by 1/2 tsp, add 2 tsp baking powder;
3/4 cup sugar plus 1 1/4 tsp cream of tartar, increase liquid in recipe by 5 Tbsp.
Mushrooms, fresh1 lb3 oz dried plus 1 1/2 cups water;
1 8-oz can, drained weight.
Mustard, dry1 tsp1 Tbsp prepared mustard;
1/2 tsp mustard seeds.
Nuts1 cup1 cup rolled oats, browned (in baked products).
Oil (for sauteing)1/4 cup1/4 cup melted margarine, butter, bacon drippings, shortening or lard.
Onion1 small1/4 cup chopped, fresh onion;
1 1/3 tsp onion salt;
1 to 2 Tbsp instant minced onion;
1 tsp onion powder.
Onion powder1 tsp1/4 cup fresh onion, chopped.
Orange1 medium6 to 8 Tbsp juice; 3/4 cup diced; 2 to 3 Tbsp grated rind.
Orange peel, dried1 Tbsp2 or 3 Tbsp grated fresh orange peel (peel of medium orange).
Parsley, fresh1 Tbsp1 tsp parsley flakes.
Pepper, white1 tsp1 tsp black pepper.
Peppers, green or red bell, dried1 Tbsp3 Tbsp fresh bell pepper, dried chopped.
Pimento2 Tbsp, chopped3 Tbsp fresh red bell pepper;
1 Tbsp dried red pepper, rehydrated.
Pumpkin pie spice1 tsp1/2 tsp cinnamon, 1/4 tsp ginger, 1/8 tsp allspice and 1/8 tsp nutmeg.
Rennet1 tablet1 Tbsp liquid rennet.
Rice1 cup cooked1 cup converted, regular brown or wild rice, cooked.
1 cup bulgur or pearl barley, cooked.
Rum1/4 cup1 Tbsp rum extract plus enough liquid to make 1/4 cup.
Shortening, melted1 cup1 cup cooking oil.
     solid1 cup1 cup minus 2 Tbsp lard; 1 cup butter or margarine (decrease salt in recipe by 1/2 tsp).
Sugar, brown1 cup1 cup granulated sugar;
1 cup granulated sugar plus 1/4 cup unsulphured molasses;
1/2 cup liquid brown sugar.
     confectioners or powdered1 cup3/4 cup granulated sugar (for uses other than baking).
     granulated1 cup1 cup firmly packed brown sugar;
1 1/3 cup confectioners sugar (for uses other than baking);
1 cup corn syrup, reduce other liquid by 1/4 cup (never replace more than 1/2 of sugar called for in recipe with corn syrup);
13/16 cup honey (1 cup less 3 Tbsp); reduce liquid in recipe by 3 Tbsp for every cup of honey added; add a pinch of baking soda to neutralize acidity;
3/4 to 1 cup maple syrup minus 3 Tbsp other liquid;
1 cup molasses or sorghum plus 1/2 tsp baking soda; omit or decrease baking powder by 1 tsp; reduce other liquid by 6 Tbsp;
1 cup raw sugar.
Tapioca, quick-cooking1 1/2-2 Tbsp4 Tbsp pearl tapioca, soaked.
     quick-cooking for thickening1 Tbsp1 Tbsp flour.
Tomatoes, fresh2 cups, chopped1 16-oz can, drained.
     packed1 cup1/2 cup tomato sauce plus 1/2 cup water.
     canned1 cup1 1/3 cups diced tomatoes simmered 10 minutes.
Tomato juice1 cup1/2 cup tomato sauce plus 1/2 cup water.
Tomato sauce2 cups3/4 cup tomato paste plus 1 cup water.
Tomato soup1 10 3/4 oz. can1 cup tomato sauce plus 1/4 cup water.
Vanilla bean1/2 bean1 Tbsp vanilla extract.
Worcestershire sauce1 tsp1 tsp bottled steak sauce.
Yeast, active dry (1/4 oz)1 package2 1/2 tsp dry yeast or 1 compressed yeast cake.
Yogurt1 cup1 cup buttermilk;
1 cup cottage cheese, blended until smooth;
1 cup sour cream.
* For conversion to metrics, use the following equivalents:
1 tsp = 5 milliliters
1 lb = .45 kilograms
1 Tbsp = 15 milliliters
1 cup = .24 liters
1 oz = 28 grams

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